slag ore crusherSlag is a partially vitreous by-product of smelting ore to separate the metal fraction from the unwanted fraction. It can usually be considered to be a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. However, slags can contain metal sulfides (see also matte) and metal atoms in the elemental form. While slags are generally used as a waste removal mechanism in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of the smelting; and also minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal.
In nature, the ores of metals such as iron, copper, lead, aluminium, and other metals are found in impure states, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals. During smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. The collection of compounds that is removed is the slag. In many smelting processes, oxides are introduced to control the slag chemistry, assisting in the removal of impurities and protecting the furnace refractory lining from excessive wear. In this case, the slag is termed synthetic. A good example is steelmaking slag: quicklime and magnesite are introduced for refractory protection, neutralising the alumina and silica separated from the metal, and assist in the removal of sulfur and phosphorus from the steel.
Ferrous and non-ferrous smelting processes produce different slags. The smelting of copper and lead in non-ferrous smelting, for instance, is designed to remove the iron and silica that often occurs with those ores, and separates them a an iron-silicate-based slags. Slag from steel mills in ferrous smelting, on the other hand, is designed to minimize iron loss and so mainly contains oxides of calcium, silicon, magnesium, and aluminium. Any sandy component or quartz component of the original ore automatically carries through the smelting process as silicon dioxide.
Most of the natural aggregates in the state of Ohio are shipped in from out of the state, whereas large steel slag deposits are locally available. The primary aim of this research was to evaluate the durability of concrete made with steel slag aggregates. This research has shown that replacing some percentage of natural aggregates by steel slag aggregates causes negligible degradation in strength. It is shown that as the amount of steel slag is increased beyond 75%; the workability of the concrete mixture became an important issue which eventually requires larger amounts of water reducing admixtures to achieve a minimum slump. The results showed that replacing about 50 to 75% of steel slag aggregates by volume for natural aggregates will not do any harm to concrete and also it will not have any adverse effects on the strength and durability.
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